A reliable, low-risk, cost-effective chemical method for treating produced water in the field.
The solution comprises our core technology, the NanoNet™ platform of nanosized particles comprising a proprietary blend of polymer and surfactants.
NanoNet™ particles selectively bind undesirable materials in the produced water, including oils, greases, solids (both suspended and dissolved) and metal ions.
NanoNet™ particles agglomerate to form a light, stable flocculant that lifts the undesirable materials to the water surface, for easy removal with standard oilfield equipment.
Our first product in the NanoNet™ platform, NanoNet™ Fe, specifically targets the removal of iron.
For clean brine generation, NanoNet Fe™ replaces the need for coagulants and flocculants.
NanoNet Fe™ may also reduce or defer the use of oxidizing biocides like ClO2 or PAA.
It’s probably sitting at the wellsite today: A tote, a tank (with aeration), a dosing pump, and a hose is all it takes.
Higher volume users will get more bang for their buck with heavily aerated processes, best enabled with a Dissolved Air Floatation (DAF) system or something similar.
NanoNet Fe™ works in any water treatment process that includes a contained system and well-distributed air flow.
Generally, best results are obtained when the water undergoes an oil/water separation process before treatment with NanoNets.
Otherwise, dosing efficiency may suffer as the NanoNets become sequestered in the oil phase.
When NanoNets are dosed into the produced water, the air helps mix the chemical with the water.
The even generation and distribution of tiny air bubbles into the treatment tank allow the NanoNet™ flocs to efficiently rise (float) to the surface of the water, where they are then removed by a skimming device.
The air also helps naturally oxidize some of the iron.
The suspended and dissolved iron becomes bound to the NanoNets in the reaction vessel.
Dissolved (ferrous) iron becomes chelated to the NanoNet, where it will eventually oxidize to its ferric form.
The NanoNets aggregate at the top of the vessel along with the captured iron – effectively creating a “net” of iron and other undesirable species that are skimmed off the top during the floatation stage and removed from the water.
NanoNet Fe™ is able to bind both ferric (Fe3+) and ferrous (Fe2+) iron.
NanoNet Fe™ can remove 30-150 PPM iron from produced water.
Depending on starting levels, final iron content is typically between 0-10 PPM total iron (including DISSOLVED iron, which is typically undetectable from a visual observation).
Post-treatment iron content levels are often less than 1 PPM.
In addition to removing total iron, some Ca and Mg is removed.
Heavy metals continue to bind, though not in a meaningful amount to effect significant removal.
The NanoNet™ formulation can be fine-tuned to focus on the targeted removal of additional heavy metals.
On a “barrels of water” basis, a bbl of NanoNet Fe™ is required to treat 2,000 bbls of water.
On an iron content basis, we conservatively start at a 1:1 dosage based on iron levels. Field work suggests that this dosage rate can be optimized lower as treatment proceeds.
Retention time depends on the aeration system installed, with longer retention times increasing separation effectiveness.
10 minutes of contact time is ideally required for floc to form.
NanoNets have successfully treated produced water at rates of 14 to 20 barrels per minute.
Field trials have shown that the resulting sludge is only 1% of the total water.
Only targeted species and the NanoNet™ products are fully removed from the water in the skimming process.
The watery sludge can be dewatered with a screw press and disposed in a landfill or saltwater disposal well (SWD).
The vast majority of treated water can then be recycled for use in subsequent hydraulic fracturing operations.